Clinical Research: "Clinical research" includes studies in human subjects such as surveys, cross-sectional studies, case series, case-control studies, cohort studies, first-in-human, proof of principle, health services research and all phases of clinical trials.

T1: "T1 translational research" may include laboratory-based research aimed at clarifying mechanisms of disease; developing measures or markers of disease presence, severity, or improvement; and developing drugs, devices, or interventions to treat disease or to improve health.

T2: "T2 translational research" generally identifies community, patient, physician, and organizational factors that serve as barriers and facilitators to translation; develops novel intervention and implementation strategies to increase translation, such as quality improvement programs or policies; and evaluates the impact of strategies to increase translation of relevant healthy behaviors and processes of care.